Thirty-six percent of adults in the United States are obese, and many cannot lose sufficient weight to improve health with lifestyle interventions alone.
Researches have conducted a systematic review of medications currently approved in the United States for obesity treatment in adults.
They have also discussed off-label use of medications studied for obesity and provide considerations for obesity medication use in clinical practice.
A search was performed to find meta-analyses, systematic reviews, and randomized, placebo-controlled trials for currently approved obesity medications lasting at least 1 year that had a primary or secondary outcome of body weight change, included at least 50 participants per group, reported at least 50% retention, and reported results on an intention-to-treat basis.
Studies of medications approved for other purposes but tested for obesity treatment were also reviewed.
Obesity medications approved for long-term use, when prescribed with lifestyle interventions, produce additional weight loss relative to placebo ranging from approximately 3% of initial weight for Orlistat ( Xenical ) and Lorcaserin ( Belviq ) to 9% for top-dose ( 15/92 mg ) Phentermine plus Topiramate extended release ( Qsymia ) at 1 year.
The proportion of patients achieving clinically meaningful ( at least 5% ) weight loss ranges from 37% to 47% for Lorcaserin, 35% to 73% for Orlistat, and 67% to 70% for top-dose Phentermine plus Topiramate extended release.
All 3 medications produce greater improvements in many cardiometabolic risk factors than placebo, but no obesity medication has been shown to reduce cardiovascular morbidity or mortality.
Most prescriptions are for noradrenergic medications, despite their approval only for short-term use and limited data for their long-term safety and efficacy.
In conclusion, drugs approved for long-term obesity treatment, when used as an adjunct to lifestyle intervention, lead to greater mean weight loss and an increased likelihood of achieving clinically meaningful 1-year weight loss relative to placebo.
By discontinuing medication in patients who do not respond with weight loss of at least 5%, clinicians can decrease their patients’ exposure to the risks and costs of drug treatment when there is little prospect of long-term benefit. ( Xagena )
Yanovski SZ, Yanovski JA, JAMA 2014;311:74-86